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The Original SOA Manifesto - English


SOA Manifesto

Service orientation is a paradigm that frames what you do.
Service-oriented architecture (SOA) is a type of architecture
that results from applying service orientation.

We have been applying service orientation to help organizations
consistently deliver sustainable business value, with increased agility
and cost effectiveness, in line with changing business needs.

Through our work we have come to prioritize:

Business value over technical strategy

Strategic goals over project-specific benefits

Intrinsic interoperability over custom integration

Shared services over specific-purpose implementations

Flexibility over optimization

Evolutionary refinement over pursuit of initial perfection

That is, while we value the items on the right, we value the items on the left more.

Guiding Principles

We follow these principles:

Respect the social and power structure of the organization.

Recognize that SOA ultimately demands change on many levels.

The scope of SOA adoption can vary. Keep efforts manageable
and within meaningful boundaries.

Products and standards alone will neither give you SOA nor apply
the service orientation paradigm for you.

SOA can be realized through a variety of technologies and standards.

Establish a uniform set of enterprise standards and policies based
on industry, de facto, and community standards.

Pursue uniformity on the outside while allowing diversity on the inside.

Identify services through collaboration with business and
technology stakeholders.

Maximize service usage by considering the current and
future scope of utilization.

Verify that services satisfy business requirements and goals.

Evolve services and their organization in response to real use.

Separate the different aspects of a system that change at different rates.

Reduce implicit dependencies and publish all external dependencies to
increase robustness and reduce the impact of change.

At every level of abstraction, organize each service around a cohesive
and manageable unit of functionality.


  • Ali Arsanjani
  • Grady Booch
  • Toufic Boubez
  • Paul C. Brown
  • David Chappell
  • John deVadoss
  • Thomas Erl
  • Nicolai Josuttis
  • Dirk Krafzig
  • Mark Little
  • Brian Loesgen
  • Anne Thomas Manes
  • Joe McKendrick
  • Steve Ross-Talbot
  • Stefan Tilkov
  • Clemens Utschig-Utschig
  • Herbjörn Wilhelmsen